Law enforcement institutions are entrusted with a various set of tasks requiring a high degree of integrity within police agencies and their oversight. Where this doesn’t function well, enforcement officers may become susceptible to acting unlawfully and out of doors their remit. The mechanisms established by States to guard people’s rights, establish and maintain order and guarantee stability and security are usually mentioned collectively because the security sector is a crucial actor within the security sector is that the police, whose functions, as a minimum, are

  • Prevention and detection of crime
  • Maintenance of public order
  • Provision of assistance to the general public.

The primary role of police forces is to uphold and enforce laws, investigate crimes and ensure security for people within the country. during a large and populous country like India, police forces got to be well-equipped, in terms of personnel, weaponry, forensic, communication and transport support, to perform their role well. Police has the facility to research crimes, enforce laws and maintain law and order during a state. to make sure that such power is merely used for legitimate purposes, various countries have adopted safeguards like making police accountable to the political executive and creating independent oversight authorities.

Crime per lakh population has increased by 28% over the last decade (2005-2015). However, convictions are low. In 2015, convictions were secured in 47% of the cases registered under the Indian legal code , 1860. The Law Commission has observed that one among the explanations behind this is often the poor quality of investigations[1].


Police forces have the authority to exercise force to enforce laws and maintain law and order during a state. However, this power could also be misused in several ways. for instance , in India, various sorts of complaints are made against the police including complaints of unwarranted arrests, unlawful searches, torture and custodial rapes[2]. If a complaint is made of rape of a woman or death of any person in custody, a judicial enquiry should be mandatory. Accountable policing means that the police accept being questioned about their decisions and actions and accept the consequences of being found guilty of misconduct, including sanctions and having to compensate victims.

In Prakash Singh v. Union of India[3], a petition was recorded before the Supreme which expressed that the police misuse and abuse their forces. It asserted non-authorization and biased use of laws for people with power, and furthermore raised occurrences of unapproved detainments, torment, provocation, and so on against normal residents. The appeal requested the court to give headings for execution from suggestions of master boards. Responsibility includes an arrangement of inner and outside balanced governance pointed toward guaranteeing that police play out the capacities expected of them to an elevated requirement and are considered dependable on the off chance that they neglect to do as such. It intends to keep the police from abusing their forces, to keep political specialists from abusing their command over the police, and in particular, to upgrade public certainty and (restore )police authenticity.

The State is regularly accepted to be best positioned to serve the public interest: the leader is viewed as unbiased, with the legal executive giving free oversight and the lawmaking body addressing the general population. Consequently, it is contended that public and free responsibility are excess. Given that responsibility incorporates duty regarding giving headings and planning cops for their work, it follows that responsibility isn’t restricted to the activities of individual officials yet applies to chiefs just as the organization in general. Wrongdoing is only sometimes confined to one person.

Habeas corpus is another basic measure to consider police responsible while denying somebody of their freedom. Under this guideline, somebody who is captured or kept has the privilege to be brought quickly under the steady gaze of an adjudicator or other legal power to survey the legitimateness of the confinement.


It is unnecessary to repeat that free from any danger climate is an essential need to support financial advancement of the country. As for Coordinated Wrongdoings, India is a signatory to the UN Show against Transnational Coordinated Violations yet as on date, India doesn’t have a focal enactment to handle such violations.

Another territory of concern is the developing dangers to inward security, psychological warfare, Left Wing Fanaticism because of which policing simply by the state without Focal help will be troublesome. Regularly, examples like between state debates, common mobs, conflicts between various standings and mela obligations request the administrations of the Focal Outfitted Police Power. For the most part, the Association Government can’t intercede in instances of spurning of public request at a state level except if the state looks for help. This, it is has been noticed, regularly snowball into a public emergency which at that point must be tended to through the limit crisis arrangements. This would require a Sacred Revision which could be troublesome. All things considered, the Middle can pronounce certain violations as Felonies. This means certain offense which have between state or public implications ought to be administered by another law [4].

In the current framework, the police work under the leader control of the state government. The way wherein political control has been practiced ridiculous in this nation has prompted net maltreatments, bringing about disintegration of law and order and loss of police believability as an expert association. A State Security Commission ought to be set up to help the state government release its administration obligations transparently and inside the current legitimate structure. Police officials ought to be secured against ill-conceived move and suspension orders. A Police Training Advisory Council ought to be set up at the UNION level and furthermore in each state, to exhort the applicable Home Minister on police preparing

In January 2000, the central government set up one more board of trustees to see police reform, usually known as the Padmanabhaiah Committee on Police Reforms. The Committee finished its report in August 2000. The Ministry of Home Affairs set up an Expert Committee to draft another Model Police Act in September, 2005 which presented its report on 30th October, 2006. The model Act accommodates all around characterized obligations and duties of the police and responsiveness, affectability of the police towards public particularly the more fragile and weak areas.


Police officials in India are exhausted, come up short on and denied of a week by week off, according to a report. They are not made up for additional time by the same token. However, the bait of working with and for the public authority carries numerous exceptionally instructed individuals into the power, including doctoral competitors. On a normal, police officials work for over 14 hours every day, which is six hours more than their expressed working term, as indicated by Status of Policing in India 2019[5].

Policing in India is a state subject which implies there is huge variety across states. Each police official is answerable for an enormous portion of individuals. While the United Nations suggested standard is 222 police for each lakh people, India’s authorized strength is 181 police for every lakh people. Subsequent to adapting to opening, the genuine police strength in India is at 137 police for every lakh people . In this manner, a normal policeman winds up having a tremendous responsibility and long working hours, which adversely influences his proficiency and execution.

Resigned IPS official Prakash Singh, a vital planner of police changes in India, highlighted the “incidental variables” on the police to cut down crime percentage, prompting poor examinations and non-enlistment of cases[6]. Police authorities should be prepared to decrease fundamental predisposition and change the police into an expert association focused on serving regular folks. Extreme utilization of power by police officials is of incredible concern. Quality instruction and preparing would keep officials from utilizing unbalanced utilization of power.

To diminish the overburdening a few steps can be embraced

  • Specialised wrongdoing examination wings and divisions should be furnished with sufficient offices, logical guides, and qualified and prepared HR.
  • The levels of leadership ought to stay unblemished in spite of the partition of examination and peace and lawfulness capacities.
  • To audit issues relating to the assistance states of the Central police faculty.
  • The State Police Board will routinely assess the exhibition of the police association in each region, just as the state police overall.
  • Police stations should show the Supreme Court rules and departmental orders managing captures just as the subtleties of people captured and held in authority.


The police work under limitless tension, are ineffectively paid, have commonly awful everyday environments and, to top it all off, are typically indebted to ruin and dishonest bosses. Undoubtedly, numerous policemen, similar to most of us, convey biases—covered up and not-so-covered up—which make their presentation lopsided and unreasonable. Yet, as people, every one of them is no more awful or better than any of us.

Key suggestion of the Police Reform Act is to isolate peace and lawfulness from examination—as such, the police need to have particular groups for each sort of movement. Restricting forces should be given on State Security Commissions and the Police Establishment Boards as a considerable lot of these Commissions didn’t have the ability to give restricting suggestions.

[1] Anviti Chaturvedi, Police Reforms in India, PRS, (June 2017)https://prsindia.org/policy/analytical-reports/police-reforms-india.

[2] Model Police Manual: Volume 2, Bureau of Police Research and Development, http://www.bprd.nic.in/WriteReadData/userfiles/file/6798203243-Volume%202.pdf.

[3] Writ Petition (Civil) No. 310 of 1996, November 8, 2010.

[4] Suparna Jain, Aprajita Gupta, Building smart police in India: background into the needed police force reforms, NITI AYOG, https://niti.gov.in/writereaddata/files/document_publication/Strengthening-Police-Force.pdf.

[5] BI india bureau, Tired of 14-hour work days, a third of Indian police officers are keen on quitting, BUSINESS INSIDER (SEP 11, 2019, 10:28 IST), https://www.businessinsider.in/tired-of-14-hour-work-days-a-third-of-indian-police-officers-are-keen-on-quitting/articleshow/71075344.cms.

[6] Ananya Bharadwaj, There can be no modern India without an improved police force — think tank urges for reforms, THEPRINT (Sept. 23, 2020 8:40 pm) https://theprint.in/india/there-can-be-no-modern-india-without-an-improved-police-force-think-tank-urges-for-reforms/509124/.

Authored By: Rishika Jain, 4th Semester, Amity Law School, Amity University Rajasthan

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